Digital Audio: Overview, History, Technologies & More

by Joost Nusselder | Updated on:  May 3, 2022

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What is digital audio? It’s a question many of us have asked ourselves at some point, and it’s not a simple answer.

Digital audio is a representation of sound in digital format. It’s a way of storing, manipulating, and transmitting audio signals in a digital form as opposed to an analog one. It’s a huge advancement in audio technology.

In this article, I’ll explain what digital audio is, how it’s different from analog audio, and how it’s revolutionized the way we record, store, and listen to audio.

What is digital audio


What is Digital Audio?

Digital audio refers to the representation of sound in a digital format. This means that sound waves are converted into a series of numbers that can be stored, manipulated, and transmitted using digital technologies.

How is Digital Audio Generated?

Digital audio is generated by taking discreet samples of an analog sound wave at regular intervals. These samples are then represented as a series of numbers, which can be stored and manipulated using digital technologies.

What are the Advantages of Digital Audio?

The availability of modern technologies has significantly reduced the costs associated with recording and distributing music. This has made it easier for independent artists to share their music with the world. Digital audio recordings can be distributed and sold as files, eliminating the need for physical copies like records or cassettes. Consumer receives popular streaming services like Apple Music or Spotify offer temporary access to representations of millions of songs.

The Evolution of Digital Audio: A Brief History

From Mechanical Waves to Digital Signatures

  • The history of digital audio can be traced back to the 19th century when mechanical devices like tin and wax cylinders were used to record and play back sounds.
  • These cylinders were carefully engraved with grooves that gathered and processed the air pressure changes in the form of mechanical waves.
  • The advent of gramophones and later, cassette tapes, made it possible for listeners to enjoy music without having to attend live performances.
  • However, the quality of these recordings was limited and the sounds were often distorted or lost over time.

The BBC Experiment and the Birth of Digital Audio

  • In the 1960s, the BBC began experimenting with a new transmission system that linked its broadcast center to remote locations.
  • This required the development of a new device that could process sounds in a more simple and efficient way.
  • The solution was found in the implementation of digital audio, which made use of discrete numbers to represent changes in air pressure over time.
  • This enabled the permanent preservation of the original state of the sound, which was previously unobtainable, especially at low levels.
  • The BBC’s digital audio system was based on the analysis of the wave form, which was sampled at a rate of a thousand times per second and assigned a unique binary code.
  • This record of the sound enabled a technician to recreate the original sound by building a device that could read and interpret the binary code.

Advancements and Innovations in Digital Audio

  • The release of the commercially available digital audio recorder in the 1980s marked a gigantic step forward in the field of digital audio.
  • This analog-to-digital converter stored sounds in a digital format that could be saved and manipulated on computers.
  • The VHS tape format later continued this trend, and digital audio has since been widely used in music production, film, and television.
  • The constant technological advancements and endless innovations in digital audio have led to the creation of distinct waves of sound processing and preservation techniques.
  • Today, digital audio signatures are used to preserve and analyze sounds in a way that was once unobtainable, making it possible to enjoy unrivaled sound quality that was previously impossible to achieve.

Digital Audio Technologies

Recording and Storage Technologies

Digital audio technologies have revolutionized the way we record and store audio. Some of the most popular technologies include:

  • Hard disk recording: Audio is recorded and stored on a hard drive, allowing for easy editing and manipulation of the audio files.
  • Digital audio tape (DAT): A digital recording format that uses magnetic tape to store audio data.
  • CD, DVD, and Blu-ray discs: These optical discs can store large amounts of digital audio data and are commonly used for music and video distribution.
  • Minidisc: A small, portable disc format that was popular in the 1990s and early 2000s.
  • Super Audio CD (SACD): A high-resolution audio format that uses a special disc and player to achieve better sound quality than standard CDs.

Playback Technologies

Digital audio files can be played back using a variety of technologies, including:

  • Computers: Digital audio files can be played back on computers using media player software.
  • Digital audio players: Portable devices like iPods and smartphones can play back digital audio files.
  • Workstationdigital audio workstations: Professional audio software used for recording, editing, and mixing digital audio.
  • Standard CD players: These players can play back standard audio CDs, which use digital audio technology.

Broadcasting and Radio Technologies

Digital audio technologies have also had a significant impact on broadcasting and radio. Some of the most popular technologies include:

  • HD Radio: A digital radio technology that allows for higher quality sound and additional features like song and artist information.
  • Mondiale: A digital radio broadcasting standard used in Europe and other parts of the world.
  • Digital radio broadcasting: Many radio stations now broadcast in digital format, allowing for better sound quality and additional features like song and artist information.

Audio Formats and Quality

Digital audio files can be stored in a variety of formats, including:

  • MP3: A compressed audio format that is widely used for music distribution.
  • WAV: An uncompressed audio format that is commonly used for professional audio applications.
  • FLAC: A lossless audio format that provides high-quality sound without sacrificing file size.

The quality of digital audio is measured by its resolution and depth. The higher the resolution and depth, the better the sound quality. Some common resolutions and depths include:

  • 16-bit/44.1kHz: CD quality audio.
  • 24-bit/96kHz: High-resolution audio.
  • 32-bit/192kHz: Studio-quality audio.

Applications of Digital Audio Technologies

Digital audio technologies have a wide range of applications, including:

  • Making perfect concert sound: Digital audio technologies allow for precise control over sound levels and quality, making it possible to achieve perfect sound in live concert settings.
  • Independent artists: Digital audio technologies have made it possible for independent artists to record and distribute their music without the need for a record label.
  • Radio and broadcasting: Digital audio technologies have allowed for better sound quality and additional features in radio and broadcasting.
  • Film and video production: Digital audio technologies are commonly used in film and video production to record and edit audio tracks.
  • Personal use: Digital audio technologies have made it easy for people to create and share their own music and audio recordings.

Digital Sampling

What is Sampling?

Sampling is the process of transforming a musical or any other soundwave into a digital format. This process involves taking regular snapshots of the soundwave at a particular point in time and converting them into digital data. The length of these snapshots determines the quality of the resulting digital audio.

How Sampling Works

Sampling involves a special software that converts the analog soundwave into a digital format. The software takes snapshots of the soundwave at a particular point in time, and these snapshots are then converted into digital data. The resulting digital audio can be stored on various mediums such as discs, hard drives, or even downloaded from the internet.

Sampling Rate and Quality

The quality of the sampled audio depends on the sampling rate, which is the number of snapshots taken per second. The higher the sampling rate, the better the quality of the resulting digital audio. However, a higher sampling rate also means that more space is taken up on the storage medium.

Compression and Conversion

To fit large audio files onto a portable medium or to download them from the internet, compression is often used. Compression involves selecting certain frequencies and harmonics to recreate the sampled soundwave, leaving plenty of wiggle room for the actual sound to be recreated. This process is not perfect, and some information is lost in the compression process.

Uses of Sampling

Sampling is used in various ways, such as creating music, sound effects, and even in video production. It is also used in the creation of digital audio for FM radio, camcorders, and even certain canon camera versions. Sampling is recommended for casual use, but for critical use, a higher sampling rate is recommended.


What are audio interfaces?

Audio interfaces are devices that convert analog audio signals from microphones and instruments into digital signals that can be processed by software on a computer. They also route digital audio signals from the computer to headphones, studio monitors, and other peripherals. There are lots of different types of audio interfaces available, but the most common and universal type is the USB (Universal Serial Bus) interface.

Why do you need an audio interface?

If you’re running audio software on your computer and want to record or play back high-quality audio, you’ll need an audio interface. Most computers have a built-in audio interface, but these are often pretty basic and don’t provide the best quality. An external audio interface will give you better sound quality, more inputs and outputs, and more control over your audio.

What are the latest versions of audio interfaces?

The latest versions of audio interfaces are available in stores that sell music equipment. They are pretty cheap these days and you can quickly push out old stocks. Obviously, the faster you want to shop, the fastest you can find the latest versions of audio interfaces.

Digital Audio Quality


When it comes to digital audio, quality is a crucial factor. The digital representation of audio signals is achieved through a process called sampling, which involves taking continuous analog signals and converting them into numerical values. This process has revolutionized the way we capture, manipulate, and reproduce sound, but it also brings new challenges and considerations for audio quality.

Sampling and Frequencies

The basic principle of digital audio is to capture and represent sound as a series of numerical values, which can be manipulated and processed using software applications. The quality of digital audio depends on how accurately these values represent the original sound. This is determined by the sampling rate, which is the number of times per second that the analog signal is measured and converted into a digital signal.

Modern music typically uses a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz, which means that the analog signal is taken 44,100 times per second. This is the same sampling rate used for CDs, which are a common medium for distributing digital audio. Higher sampling rates, such as 96 kHz or 192 kHz, are also available and can provide better quality, but they also require more storage space and processing power.

Digital Signal Encoding

Once the analog signal is sampled, it is encoded into a digital signal using a process called pulse-code modulation (PCM). PCM represents the amplitude of the analog signal at each sampling point as a numerical value, which is then stored as a series of binary digits (bits). The number of bits used to represent each sample determines the bit depth, which affects the dynamic range and resolution of the digital audio.

For example, a CD uses a bit depth of 16 bits, which can represent 65,536 different amplitude levels. This provides a dynamic range of approximately 96 dB, which is sufficient for most listening environments. Higher bit depths, such as 24 bits or 32 bits, can provide even better quality and dynamic range, but they also require more storage space and processing power.

Digital Audio Manipulation

One of the advantages of digital audio is the ability to manipulate and process the signal using software applications. This can include editing, mixing, applying effects, and simulating different environments. However, these processes can also affect the quality of the digital audio.

For example, applying certain effects or changes to the audio signal can degrade the quality or introduce artifacts. It is important to understand the limitations and capabilities of the software being used, as well as the specific requirements of the audio project.

Independent Music Production with Digital Audio

From Chunky Decks to Affordable Equipment

Gone are the days when recording music professionally meant investing in chunky decks and expensive equipment. With the advent of digital audio, independent artists around the world can now make music in their home studios every day. The availability of affordable equipment has drastically changed the music industry, creating a positive impact on musicians who can now produce their own music without going broke.

Understanding Digital Audio Quality

Digital audio is a method of recording soundwaves as digital data. The resolution and sample rate of digital audio affect the quality of the sound. Here’s a brief history of how digital audio quality has evolved over the years:

  • In the early days of digital audio, the sample rates were low, resulting in poor sound quality.
  • As technology improved, sample rates increased, resulting in better sound quality.
  • Today, digital audio quality is incredibly high, with sample rates and bit depth that accurately capture the soundwaves.

Recording and Processing Digital Audio

To record digital audio, musicians use standalone keyboards, virtual instruments, software synthesizers, and FX plugins. The recording process involves converting analog signals into digital data using analog-to-digital converters. The digital data is then stored as files on a computer. The size of the files depends on the resolution and sample rate of the recording.

Latency and Production

Latency is the delay between the input of a sound and its processing. In music production, latency can be a problem when recording multitracks or stems. To avoid latency, musicians rely on low-latency audio interfaces and processors. Digital data signals are processed through a circuit, which generates a waveform image of the sound. This waveform image is then reconstructed into sound by the playback device.

Distortions and Dynamic Range

Digital audio has a high dynamic range, which means it can accurately capture the full range of sound. However, digital audio can also suffer from distortions, such as clipping and quantization distortion. Clipping occurs when the input signal exceeds the headroom of the digital system, resulting in distortion. Quantization distortion occurs when the digital system rounds off the signal to fit into rigid segments, imprinting inaccuracies at certain points in time.

Social Distribution Platforms

With the rise of social distribution platforms, independent musicians can now distribute their music to a global audience without the need for a record label. These platforms allow musicians to upload their music and share it with their following. The democratization of music distribution has created a true tech revolution, giving musicians the freedom to create and share their music with the world.


So there you have it, everything you need to know about digital audio in a nutshell. Digital audio is the representation of sound as discrete numerical values, rather than as continuous physical waves. 

Digital audio has revolutionized the way we record, store, manipulate, and listen to music. So, don’t be afraid to dive in and enjoy the benefits of this amazing technology!

I'm Joost Nusselder, the founder of Neaera and a content marketer, dad, and love trying out new equipment with guitar at the heart of my passion, and together with my team, I've been creating in-depth blog articles since 2020 to help loyal readers with recording and guitar tips.

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